GASCONY

GASCONY, a duchy under English rule from 1152 to 1453, and later (with Guyenne) a province of the kingdom of France. There have been Jews in Gascony from at least the fourth century, especially in bordeaux . From 1242 or earlier the English ruler appointed special judges over the Jews, who were particularly numerous in agen and its vicinity. A first expulsion order was issued in 1289, even before the expulsion from England itself. Debts owing to the Jews were confiscated and collected at half their value for the king's treasury. Royal agents were appointed to seize the Jews and their belongings. However, the expulsion order was not vigorously enforced or rapidly became obsolete, for in 1292 there were again Jews in Gascony; the king ordered their expulsion once more. In 1305 they returned and must this time have obtained official authorization since in 1308 a judge was again in charge of Jewish affairs. A further expulsion order followed in 1310, which was repeated in 1313 and 1316. However, there were Jews in Gascony in 1320, when they were massacred by the pastoureaux . Some Jews were still found in Bordeaux until at least 1362. Jews bearing the surname of Gascon may have originated from there. Marrano refugees from Spain took refuge in this region from the close of the 15th century. Through them the Bordeaux community later became important again. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gross, Gal Jud, 144–5; E. Gaullieur, in: REJ, 11 (1885), 78–100; I. Rosenthal, in: PAAJR, 26 (1957), 127–34; Ch. Bemond and Y. Renouard (eds.), Rôles Gascons, 2 (1900), nos. 1067, 1128, 1181, 1192; 3 (1906), nos. 2054, 4786; 4 (1962), nos. 246, 488, 489, 490, 1127, 1138, 1233, 1670; Ch. Samaran, La Gascogne dans… Trésor des Chartes (1966), nos. 43, 44, 428; H.G. Richardson, English Jewry under Angevin Kings (1960), 225–7, 232–3. (Bernhard Blumenkranz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Gascony — ( fr. Gascogne, pronounced|gaskɔɲ; Gascon Occitan: Gasconha , pronounced IPA| [gasˈkuɲɔ] ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France prior to the French Revolution. In historic references dating from the beginning of… …   Wikipedia

  • Gascony —    Gascony (Gascogne) is a former province of France located between the Garonne River and the Pyrenees. Part of the ancient Roman Aquitania, it was conquered by the Visigoths, then the Franks. It takes its name from Vascones (Basques), who… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Gascony — [gas′kə nē] [ME Gascoyne < OFr Gascogne < LL Vasconia < L Vascones, pl., the Basques] historical region in SW France, on the Bay of Biscay …   English World dictionary

  • Gascony — /gas keuh nee/, n. a former province in SW France. French, Gascogne /gann skawn yeu/. * * * French Gascogne ancient Vasconia Historical and cultural region, southwestern France. It encompasses portions of the southwestern French régions of… …   Universalium

  • Gascony — or French Gascogne geographical name region & former province SW France capital Auch …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Gascony — noun A former region of France that was eliminated during the …   Wiktionary

  • GASCONY —    an ancient province of SW. France, lying between the Atlantic, the Pyrenees, and the Garonne; it included several of the present departments; the province was of Basque origin, but ultimately became united with Aquitaine, and was added to the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Gascony — reg., SW France …   Webster's Gazetteer

  • Gascony — n. region in southwest France …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Gascony — Gas•co•ny [[t]ˈgæs kə ni[/t]] n. geg a former province in SW France. French, Gas•cogne [[t]gaˈskɔn yə[/t]] …   From formal English to slang

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